Police said the Chief Justice and judge Hassan Saeed were arrested over an ongoing investigation.
Earlier, police also arrested former Maldivian President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom and his son in law from their home in the capital, on charges of plotting to overthrow the government.
Gayoom, Yameen's half brother, had stood with the main opposition and was campaigning to topple Yameen.
Yameen on Monday night officially announced that the Maldives was under a state of emergency for the duration of 15 days but said people's daily lives including businesses would remain unhindered and curfew would not be imposed.
The government also assured that tourism would continue without any hindrance and said that the island's resorts and hotels would continue to function as normal.
Maldives has been facing days of unrest after the Supreme Court issued a ruling last week to release top opposition political leaders including former President Mohamed Nasheed and former Vice President Ahmed Adeeb.
Yameen earlier Monday wrote three letters to the Supreme Court explaining the challenges in implementing the court order.