The service runs on 10 km of the rail track from the railway station in the center of Phnom Penh to the Phnom Penh International Airport in the west.
"This is another historic day that our country has a railway passenger shuttle service connecting the Phnom Penh City to Phnom Penh International Airport," the minister told reporters at the launching ceremony.
"It will contribute to reducing traffic congestion and road accidents."
The air-conditioner-equipped trains would take a maximum of 25 minutes for a single trip, the minister said, adding that each train was capable of carrying about 100 passengers, including 56 seating and 44 standing.
Chanthol said two train engines are used to transport passengers and the number will be increased to five when other three train engines purchased from Mexico arrive.
According to the minister, the airport train service would be free to citizens from April 10 until July 31, and after the period, a reasonable ticket price would be charged.
The airport train service is the latest launch of a new public transportation option in the Southeast Asian nation.
On April 4, a passenger train service resumed operations between Poipet town bordering Thailand and Serey Sophorn in northern Cambodia's Banteay Meanchey province, and on April 6, a taxi boat service along the Tonle Sap and Tonle Bassac rivers from Phnom Penh to southern Kandal province was launched.