"While just having a flick through the document, one can notice that its confrontational charge and anti-Russian focus stare in the face," the Russian Foreign Ministry said in a statement.
"The document's statement that Russia allegedly refuses to further reduce its nuclear capabilities is yet another example of the blatant 'falsification'," the statement said.
The US said in its 2018 Nuclear Posture Review that Russia continues to violate a series of arms control treaties and commitments.
"In the nuclear context, the most significant Russian violation involves a system banned by the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty," said the 74-page US nuclear policy report released on Friday.
"In a broader context, Russia is either rejecting or avoiding its obligations and commitments under numerous agreements, and has rebuffed US efforts to follow the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) with another round of negotiated reductions and to pursue reductions in non-strategic nuclear forces," it added.
The Russian Foreign Ministry said it has nothing in common with the actual state of affairs. "Certainly, we will be compelled to take into consideration the approaches introduced now by Washington and to take necessary steps in order to ensure own security," it noted.
The Russian Foreign Ministry urged the United States to "team up to look for solutions to the problems that have been accumulating in the field of strategic stability."
The US report, which is largely in line with the 2010 review done by the Obama administration, reaffirms commitments to non-proliferation treaties but emphasizes the need to enhance capabilities to match with Russia, showing supports for US nuclear modernization projects.
The review, the first of this kind since 2010, also calls for a "lower-yield" option with less powerful explosive capacity for ballistic and cruise missiles launched from submarines.